Friday, February 27, 2015

Artificial Insemination: The technology of Deep freezing Buffalo Semen

Artificial insemination is the technique in which semen with living sperms is collected from the male and introduced into female reproductive tract at proper time with the help of instruments. This has been found to result in a normal offspring. In this process, the semen is inseminated into the female by placing a portion of it either in a collected or diluted form into the cervix or uterus by mechanical methods at the proper time and under most hygienic conditions.

Artificial insemination is not merely a novel method of bringing about impregnation in females. Instead, it is a powerful tool mostly employed for livestock improvement. In artificial insemination the germplasm of the bulls of superior quality can be effectively utilized with the least regard for their location in faraway places. By adoption of artificial insemination, there would be considerable reduction in both genital and non-genital diseases in the farm stock.


There are several advantages by artificial insemination over natural mating or servicing.

1.       There is no need of maintenance of breeding bull for a herd; hence the cost of maintenance of breeding bull is saved.
2.       It prevents the spread of certain diseases and sterility due to genital diseases. i.e.: contagious abortion, vibriosis.
3.       By regular examination of semen after collection and frequent checking on fertility make early detection of interior males and better breeding efficiency is ensured.
4.       The progeny testing can be done at an early age.
5.       The semen of a desired size can be used even after the death of that particular sire.
6.       The semen collected can be taken to the urban areas or rural areas for insemination.
7.       7 it makes possible the mating of animals with great differences in size without injury to either of the animal.
8.       It is helpful to inseminate the animals that are refuse to stands or accept the male at the time of oestrum.
9.       It helps in maintaining the accurate breeding and cawing records.
10.    It increases the rate of conception.
11.    It helps in better record keeping.
12.    Old, heavy and injured sires can be used.


1.       Requires well-trained operations and special equipment.
2.       Requires more time than natural services.
3.       Necessitates the knowledge of the structure and function of reproduction on the part of operator.
4.       Improper cleaning of instruments and in sanitary conditions may lead to lower fertility.
5.       If the bull is not properly tested, the spreading of genital diseases will be increased.
6.       Market for bulls will be reduced, while that for superior bull is increased.


Semen Collection
Semen from genetically superior bulls are collected using artificial vagina (42-48°C)

Semen Evaluation
Collected semen will be evaluated visually (color, pH, volume) and microscopically (motility, concentration, morphology)

Semen Dilution
Ejaculated semen with good color and with 60% and above motility are diluted with an equal volume of extender initially at 28-32°C

The extended semen is cooled to 15-20°C then to 2-7°C. this procedure is done to protect the sperm from cold shock. Table 1 shows the composition of the extender used in the laboratory.

Table 1. Composition of Extender
Tris hydroxymethyl aminomethane
Citric acid monohydrate
Distilled water
100 ml
(dissolve the chemicals then bring to boil in water bath for 10-15 minutes)
Extender (100ml)
Buffer solution
Egg yolk (20%)
Glycerol (7%)

Final Dilution
Remaining volume of extender will be added once the initially diluted semen reaches 2-7 C. (Concentration of sperm after dilution is approximately 100 million per ml)

Filling and Sealing
Extended semen is filled in 0.5 ml capacity straw bearing the bull name, number and date of processing for identification

Strawed semen is maintained at 2-7°C in cooling chamber for at least 4 hours. During this time, the spermatozoa acquire the ability to survive freezing because the glycerol form complexes with water

After equilibration the semen in straw is frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor for 5-7 minutes, after which they are immersed into liquid nitrogen at -196°C. (use of a simple rapid freezer, FHK, FA1652 is the most common in the country)


Post Freezing Evaluation
Frozen semen samples from each bull are thawed and the percentage of cells exhibiting normal progressive movement is assessed. (Percent post thaw mortality must be at least 30% or approximately about 15 million motile sperm per dose)

All frozen semen from each ejaculate that passed the post freezing evaluation will then be transferred to the designated storage tanks assigned for each bull

The stored frozen semen is always available for disposal to AI technicians

About this Blog!

well, first its a requirement :) 
second i am newbie in blogging, 
so i chose the title close to my assignment :) 
for easy researching 
and last, which is the most important of all, i'm happy and i am learning how to blog because i know that someday, i can be a famous blogger too :D and earn from this :D joke!


" How technology helps me on my job"

Technology is the purposeful application of information in the design, production, and utilization of goods and services, and in the organization of human activities

-  (business

with the above definition of technology, i can say that everything you need, every information that you want to learn and explore are on the palm of your hand serve in a silver platter. it only means that the hindrance to technology is not technology itself but our own limitation. the way we research, the way we innovate ourselves, the way we think outside the box and the way on how we embrace the fast facing change. therefore it only means one thing, the only way to  cope up with technology it to let ourselves go with the flow, go with the change.

as a student of m.s. in animal science , i am taking this technology as a means to make my assignments and researches easier, it makes my work a lot presentable and creative. with further exploration, i am enhancing my skills and creativity with applications develop to enhance my talent.

as an educator, this technology were able to provide a good support for my students, especially with limited number of resources (i.e. books, journal, etc). incorporating technology in my class eases the way of presenting the subject matter and saves time, instead of using chalk in writing, you can present it with power point and discuss it right away. in this manner, the students  can learn more, gain more from the subject i taught.

as an entrepreneur, technology gives a free advertisement on social media. having account on several network sites enables me to reach my client on faraway areas. Anyway, in this area there are lot of things to explore especially that i'm new in this venture.

i know that defining technology is a lot more than this, but i guess for me this is technology is all about and this is how it helps me in my job.

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Monday, February 23, 2015

Online Learning: Towards Enabling Choice

Computer technology has made a significant impact in many areas of teaching and learning. The introduction of desktop computers, word-processing packages and presentation preparation tools has improved greatly the quality of the material presented to students and used in lectures. The use of simple database packages and spreadsheets has improved and simplified record keeping at all levels within education. However, the most significant impact has come through the use of supportive learning mechanisms such as computer-aided learning (CAL), computer-based training (CBT) and online learning. These technologies make use of various forms of interactivity to engage the student in effective, and often novel, learning experiences, (Leidner & Jarvenpaa, 1995); (Alavi, Yoo, & Vogel, 1997) .

The terms used to refer to the use of computers in education are many and in some cases have conflicting and inconsistent use. Terms include: - computer aided learning, web-based learning, computer managed instruction distance learning, online learning, etc. (Smith, 1999); (Garrison, 1985). Many of these terms have considerable underpinnings while others are relatively new and are the subject of ongoing research. The focus of this paper lies with the application of computer and communications technologies in general and while these technologies can be included under this umbrella, they are not examined individually.
Bates (Bates, 1995) highlights the following criteria for assessing the properties of different learning technologies:

1.      Access – how easy is it for learners to access the technology? 
2.      Costs – what is the economics of using the new structure – the unit cost per learner?
3.      Teaching and Learning - what approaches to learning are appropriate - what are the pedagogical strengths and weaknesses of different technologies?
4.      Interactivity – what type of interaction does the technology support?
5.      Organization – what changes in the organization need to be made before the technology can be used successfully?
6.      Novelty – how new is the technology?
7.      Speed – how quickly can courses be mounted and updated with this technology?

While there is general agreement that the use of computer and communication technology greatly improves access to learning, evidence of its cost or pedagogical advantage is less obvious. Evaluation efforts into pedagogic issues seek to establish an educational basis for the activity either by empirical measurement or by reflexively evaluating products with a view to their improvement. Economic evaluation on the other hand tries to assess the overall impact of the technology in terms of its viability by comparison with traditional methods.

Learning is a complex process that is modeled by educational theories and can be measured using a variety of reasonably objective methodologies. Educators are applying these theories to new technologies and have tried to use evaluative processes to gauge the ability of educational theory to model the learning engendered by them. The empirical evaluations of some new technologies have shown no clear evidence for greater efficiency of learning than conventional methods. The process of learning aided by computer technology is not completely understood, neither is it clear how it should be evaluated? Despite this unclear link between educational theory and new practices, the implementation of computer technology can be very successful when handled by educators who are experienced in applying educational theory in practical situations. By contrast, there are many circumstances where the implementation of new technology systems can be seen to be damaging. We have observed that educational management has a tendency to perceive new online forms of learning principally as a solution to globalization and efficiency problems and not a tool to be used if and only if the right pedagogical conditions exist.


Alavi, M., Yoo, Y., & Vogel, D. R. (1997). Using Information Technology to Add Value to Management Education. Academy of Management Journal, 40 (6) 1310-1333.
Bates, A. W. (1995). Technology, Open LEarning and Distance Education. London, Routledge.
Garrison, R. D. (1985). Three Generations of Technological Innovations in Distance Education, Distance Education.
Leidner, D. E., & Jarvenpaa, S. L. (1995). The Use of Information Technology to Enhance Management School Education: A Theoretical View. MIS Quarterly.
Smith, L. T. (1999). A Taxonomy of Computer Usage in Training and Education. In Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference Computers and Technology in Education, (pp. 190-193). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.